Although we do not necessarily disagree with the notion that symptoms play an active causal role in psychopathology, we wish to point out that the conclusion that symptoms are not interchangeable is difficult to ascertain from a sparse approximated network structure alone. This is because the LASSO relies on the assumption that the true network structure is sparse; the LASSO will always search for a model in which relatively few edges and paths explain the co-occurrence of all nodes. As a result, the LASSO can have a low sensitivity (i.e., not all true edges are detected) but always has a high specificity (i.e., few false positives) . It is this reason why network analysts prefer the LASSO; edges that are estimated by the LASSO are likely to represent true edges. Moreover, the LASSO returns a possible explanation of the data using only a few connections that can be interpreted as causal pathways [11, 35]. That the LASSO yields a possible explanation, however, does not mean that the LASSO provides the only explanation, nor does it indicate that other explanations are false. The sparse explanations found by the LASSO can give great insight regarding a possible way in which psychopathological symptoms interact with each other. However, merely finding a sparse structure does not mean that other explanations (e.g., a common cause with interchangeable symptoms) are disproved. Simply stated, using the LASSO returns a sparse structure, that is what the LASSO does.
We find ourselves beset by difficulties and hindrances. Suddenly there is a turn of affairs, as if someone were coming up with a horse and wagon and unhitching them. This event comes so unexpectedly that we assumethe newcomer to be a robber. Gradually it becomes clear that he has noevil intentions but seeks to be friendly and to offer help. But this offeris not to be accepted, because it does not come from the right quarter.We must wait until the time is fulfilled; ten years is a fulfilled cycleof time. Then normal conditions return of themselves, and we can join forceswith the friend intended for us. Using the image of a betrothed girl whoremains true to her lover in face of grave conflicts, the hexagram givescounsel for a special situation. When in times of difficulty a hindranceis encountered and unexpected relief is offered from a source unrelatedto us, we must be careful and not take upon ourselves any obligations entailedby such help; otherwise our freedom of decision is impaired. If we bideour time, things will quiet down again, and we shall attain what we havehoped for.
In the royal hunts of ancient China it was customary to drive up the game from three sides, but on the fourth the animals had a chance torun off. If they failed to do this they had to pass through a gate behindwhich the king stood ready to shoot. Only animals that entered here wereshot; those that ran off in front were permitted to escape. This customaccorded with a kingly attitude; the royal hunter did not wish to turnthe chase into a slaughter, but held that the kill should consist only ofthose animals which had so to speak voluntarily exposed themselves. Thereis depicted here a ruler, or influential man, to whom people are attracted.Those who come to him he accepts, those who do not come are allowed to gotheir own way. He invited none, flatters none--all come of their own freewill. In this way there develops a voluntary dependence among those who holdhim. They do not have to be constantly on their guard but may express theiropinions openly. Police measures are not necessary, and they cleave totheir ruler of their own volition. The same principle of freedom is validfor life in general. We should not woo favor from people. If a man cultivateswithin himself the purity and the strength that are necessary for onewho is the center of a fellowship, those who are meant for him come oftheir own accord.
The situation is one in which we are still not bound by any obligations of social intercourse. If our conduct is simple, we remain free of them We can quietly follow our predilections as long as we are content andmake not demands on people. The meaning of the hexagram is not standstillbut progress. A man finds himself in an altogether inferior position atthe start. However, he has the inner strength that guarantees progress.If he can be content with simplicity, he can make progress without blame.When a man is dissatisfied with modest circumstances, he is restless andambitious and tries to advance, not for the sake of accomplishing anythingworth while, but merely in order to escape from lowliness and povertyby dint of his conduct. Once his purpose is achieved, he is certain tobecome arrogant and luxury-loving. Therefore blame attaches to his progress.On the other hand, a man who is good at his work is content to behave simply.He wishes to make progress in order to accomplish something. When he attainshis goal, he does something worth while, an all is well.
It often happens, when a man exerts a certain amount of influence, that he obtains a following by condescension toward inferiors. But the people who attach themselves to him are not honest in their intentions. They seek personal advantage and try to make themselves indispensablethrough flattery and subservience. If one becomes accustomed to such satellites and cannot do without them, it brings misfortune. Only when a man is completely free from his ego, and intent, by conviction, upon what is right and essential, does he acquire the clarity that enables him to see through such people, and become free of blame.
Punishment is to be carried out by someone who lacks the power and authority to do so. Therefore the culprits do not submit. The matter at issue is an old one-as symbolized by salted game-and in dealing with it difficulties arise. This old meat is spoiled: by taking up the problem the punisher arouses poisonous hatred against himself, and n this way is put in a somewhat humiliating position. But since punishment was required by the time, he remains free of blame.
In bestowing care and nourishment, it is important that the rightpeople should be taken care of and that we should attend to our own nourishmentin the right way. If we wish to know what anyone is like, we have only toobserve on whom he bestows his care and what sides of his own nature he cultivates and nourishes. Nature nourishes all creatures. The great man fostersand takes care of superior men, in order to take care of all men throughthem. Mencius says about this:
If we wish to know whether anyone is superior or not, we need only observe what part of his being he regards as especially important. The body has superior and inferior, important and unimportant parts. We must not injure important parts for the sake of the unimportant, nor must weinjure the superior parts for the sake of the inferior. He who cultivatesthe inferior parts of his nature is an inferior man. He who cultivates thesuperior parts of his nature is a superior man.
Here is a situation in which the unusual has reached a climax. One is courageous and wishes to accomplish one's task, no matter what happens. This leads into danger. The water rises over one's head. This is themisfortune. But one incurs no blame in giving up one's life that thegood and the right may prevail. There are things that are more importantthan life.
What is dark clings to what is light and so enhances the brightness of the latter. A luminous thing giving out light must have within itself something that perseveres; otherwise it will in time burn itself out.Everything that gives light is dependent on something to which it clings,in order that it may continue to shine. Thus the sun and moon cling toheaven, and grain, grass, and trees cling to the earth. So too the twofoldclarity of the dedicated man clings to what is right and thereby can shapethe world. Human life on earth is conditioned and unfree, and when man recognizesthis limitation and makes himself dependent upon the harmonious and beneficent forces of the cosmos, he achieves success. The cow is the symbol of extreme docility. By cultivating in himself an attitude of compliance and voluntary dependence, man acquires clarity without sharpness and finds his place in the world.
Whatever endures can be created only gradually by long-continued work and careful reflection. In the same sense Lao-tse says: "If we wish to compress something, we must first let it fully expand." He who demandstoo much at once is acting precipitately, and because he attempts too much, he ends by succeeding in nothing. Nine in the second place means:
When it is time to retreat it is both unpleasant and dangerous tobe held back, because then one no longer has freedom of action. In such acase the only expedient is to take into one's service, so to speak, thosewho refuse to let one go, so that one may at least keep one's initiativeand not fall helplessly under their domination. But even with this expedientthe situation is far from satisfactory--for what can one hope to accomplishwith such servants?
The situation is unequivocal. Inner detachment has become an established fact, and we are at liberty to depart. When one sees the way ahead thus clearly, free of all doubt, a cheerful mood sets in, and one chooses what is right without further thought. Such a clear path ahead always leadsto the good.
At a time when all elements are pressing for progress, we are still uncertain whether in the course of advance we may not meet with a rebuff. Then the thing to do is simply continue in what is right; in the endthis will bring good fortune. It may be that we meet with no confidence.In this case we ought not to try to win confidence regardless of the situation, but should remain calm and cheerful and refuse to be roused to anger.Thus we remain free of mistakes.
Readiness is everything. Resolution is indissolubly bound up withcaution. If an individual is careful and keeps his wits about him, he neednot become excited or alarmed. If he is watchful at all times, even beforedanger is present, he is armed when danger approaches and need not be afraid.The superior man is on his guard against what is not yet in sight and onthe alert for what is not yet within hearing; therefore he dwells in themidst of difficulties as thought hey did not exist. If a man develops hischaracter, people submit to him of their own accord. If reason triumphs,the passions withdraw of themselves. To be circumspect and not to forgetone's armor is the right way to security. 2b1af7f3a8